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Neurological Rehabilitation

What is Neurological Rehabilitation?

Neurological Rehabilitation is an effective doctor-supervised program which is specifically designed to treat people with injuries, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. SIA’s Inpatient Neurological Rehabilitation Program provides intensive medical care and rehabilitative support from experts in rehabilitation psychology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, therapeutic recreation, social work, rehabilitation nursing, and nutrition. Neurological Rehabilitation can improve function, reduce symptoms and improve the well-being of a person.

Who can benefit from Neurological Rehabilitation?

SIA Rehabilitation Center provides Neurological Rehabilitation services for adults and children with a range of neurological disorders, including but not limited to-

Stroke | Multiple Sclerosis (MS) | Parkinson’s Disease | Alzheimer’s Disease | Guillain-Barre Syndrome | Myasthenia Gravis | Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) / Lou Gehrig’s Disease | Brain Tumour | Huntington’s disease (HD)


A Stroke / Cerebrovascular Accident takes place when blood flow to a part of your brain is stopped either by a blockage or the rupture of a blood vessel. There are two types of strokes- Ischemic Stroke, which is caused when a clot blocks a blood vessel and prevents blood and oxygen from getting to a part of the brain; and Hemorrhagic Stroke, which occurs when a blood vessel ruptures and prevents blood from reaching a specific part of the brain.

Symptoms of stroke include trouble walking, speaking and understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg.


The goal is to help the patient return to the highest level of function & independence as well as improve the overall quality of life. To achieve these goals, our program includes:

  • An early assessment of the level of recovery possible considering the patient’s condition. Early mobilization is associated with better outcomes. Following this, type and intensity of therapy will be determined based on the patient’s needs.
  • Helping with day-to-day activities such as dressing, eating, bathing, toilet needs, writing, cooking as well as housekeeping.
  • Speech Therapy to assist in swallowing comfortably, speaking, reading and writing.
  • Exercise regimens to improve movement and decreased weakness.
  • Nutrition awareness sessions
  • Social and behavioural skill training along with stress, anxiety and depression management.


Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged. The symptoms of MS depend on the extent of nerve damage. In some cases, people with MS may lose the ability to walk without support or walk at all.

Physiotherapy and medication that suppress the immune system can help with symptoms, and slow disease progression.  Exercise which is a part of our rehabilitation program can increase activity and improve the health and well-being of people with MS.

In addition, there is an emerging body of evidence to say that physiotherapists, as part of a specialist neuro-rehabilitative service, have a key role in managing specific symptoms of MS including pain, spasticity and the prevention of secondary complications such as contracture.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that causes a progressive loss of brain cells which leads to memory loss and the decline of other thinking skills over time. The first sign of Alzheimer’s disease is usually minor memory problems. As the condition develops, memory problems become more severe and further symptoms can develop, such as confusion, disorientation and getting lost in familiar places, difficulty making decisions, problems with speech and language, problems moving around without assistance or performing self-care tasks, personality changes (aggressive, demanding and suspicious), hallucinations and delusions, low mood or anxiety.


Physical activity is important to incorporate in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease and the sooner the better.  Our Neurological Rehabilitation Program at SIA for a person with Alzheimer’s Disease is based on the symptoms and the progression of the same. This determines the kind of assistance required by the individual. Our treatment program includes:

Planning day-to-day activities to provide meaning, and accomplishment for the patient; since most of the functions are lost, creating routines and activities that will have them participate, keeping the patient out of harm’s way by eliminating all safety risks and keeping them active to ensure movement and reduction of weakness.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system. It occurs as an autoimmune response following vaccination, viral infection or respiratory infection. The initial symptoms are changes in sensation or pain along with muscle weakness, beginning in the feet and hands. This often spreads to the arms and upper body with both sides being involved.


At SIA, our Neurological Rehabilitation Program is aimed at maintaining clear airways, prevention of lung infection, maintenance of anatomical joint range, support joint in functional position to minimize damage or deformity, prevention of pressure sores, maintenance of peripheral circulation, providing psychological support for the patient and relatives.

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis is a rare long-term condition that causes muscle weakness that comes and goes. The initial, main symptom in MG is a painless weakness of specific muscles, not fatigue. It most commonly affects the muscles that control the eyes and eyelids, facial expressions, chewing, swallowing and speaking. The muscle weakness becomes progressively worse during periods of physical activity and improves after periods of rest.

Neurological Rehabilitation alone or in combination with other forms of treatment can relieve or reduce symptoms of MG. It is not possible to cure the weakness by active physical training. Physical activity and physical training of low to medium intensity are recommended.


At SIA, exercise is aimed to strengthen large muscle groups, particularly muscles of shoulders and hips. Patients are encouraged to do the exercises at their “best time of day” ie. When they are not feeling tired (for a majority of MG patients this will be morning). The exercises are of moderate intensity only: A patient should not experience worsening of MG symptoms (eg. ptosis or diplopia) during exercise. We also guide them into general aerobic exercises which help with respiratory function as well stamina.

ALS / Lou Gehrig’s Disease

ALS is a progressive disease, which means it gets worse over time. It is a motor neuron disease which affects nerves in your brain and spinal cord that control your muscles. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. As your muscles get weaker, it gets harder for you to walk, talk, eat, and breathe.


There is no cure or standard treatment for ALS so the focus is on supportive treatments that aim to maintain the individuals’ quality of life. Our Neurological Rehabilitation Program takes a holistic treatment approach as the disease can be very distressing for the individual and their family.  We not only focus on the physical aspect of the disease but also the emotional and psychosocial components.

Physiotherapy, respiratory and occupational therapy, and social care are important in the care of those suffering from ALS. Our dietician ensures that the patient eats a balanced diet and receives proper nutrition to help them maintain weight and keep up their strength as individuals can often lose weight as their ability to swallow is impaired.

Our exercise regimen focuses on improving posture, preventing joint immobility and slowing the progressive muscle weakening and atrophy. Stretching and strengthening exercises help reduce spasticity, increase the range of motion and improve circulation. Additional therapy for those with speech, chewing, and swallowing difficulties is offered if required


A brain tumour occurs when abnormal cells from within the brain. There are two main types of tumours: malignant (cancerous tumours) and benign tumours. All types of brain tumours may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, a problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking, and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.


Our Neurological Rehabilitation Team starts with a consultation with our in-house physical therapist to assess the functional status of the patient and provide treatment aimed at maximizing independence and functional capacity. If intensive physical therapy is required, patients will benefit from our in-patient rehabilitation. Physical therapy evaluation includes identifying what areas may be limiting function: strength, balance, endurance, pain. Functional strengthening and aerobic training will be progressed slowly. Tumour patients will benefit greatly from low-intensity exercises conducted by our team. The physical therapist may prescribe individualized exercises to address the above areas and may recommend adaptive equipment.

Huntington’s Disease

Huntington’s disease (HD), also known as Huntington’s chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in the death of brain cells. The earliest symptoms are often subtle problems with mood or mental abilities. A general lack of coordination and imbalance often follow.  As the disease advances, uncoordinated, jerky body movements become more apparent. Physical abilities gradually worsen until coordinated movement becomes difficult and the person is unable to talk. Mental abilities generally decline into dementia. The specific symptoms vary somewhat between people. Symptoms usually begin between 30 and 50 years of age, but can start at any age.

About 8% of cases start before the age of 20 years and typically present with symptoms more similar to Parkinson’s disease. People with HD often underestimate the degree of their problems.


Neurological Rehabilitation for Huntington Disease is aimed at gait re-education (to gain independence in walking), balance retraining, fall prevention/management, aerobic capacity, muscle strengthening, wheelchair prescription and training, respiratory function, task-specific reach, grasp, and manipulation.